Estimation of Genetic Distance among Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Crosses in Ethiopia
In Ethiopia, there is very little effort has been carried in determining on genetic information of potato crosses. This study was conducted to determine the genetic distance among 81 potato clones. Parents with their hybrid offspring were evaluated for 18 traits in a 9 x 9 simple lattice design and their genetic diversity was determined using multivariate analysis. The Euclidean distances estimates showed that the genetic distances ranged from 1.57 to 14.35 cM with a mean of 5.77. Cluster analysis revealed that the parents and offspring were grouped into sixteen clusters. The maximum number of clones were grouped in cluster V followed by cluster I with 15 clones and cluster VI with 13 clones. Cluster mean analysis showed a wide range of variation for several characters among single as well as multi-genotypic clusters. Clones produced from biparental crosses of Jalene with Aterababa and Belete with Aterababa showed high inter and intra cluster distance than Shenkola with Gera crosses. The first four principal components accounted for 72.7% of the total variations; where principal component analysis 1and 2 with values of 33.8% and 16.6%, respectively, which contributed to 50% of total variations. Total yield per hectare, tuber yield per plant, marketable tuber yield and stem height had much contribution to the principal component analysis. The current study suggests the higher chance of developing genetically distant clones through local crossing to produce heterotic hybrids. Considering diversity pattern, parents should be selected from I, II, X, XI and XII clusters to improve potato crop.
Keywords:Attitudes, Biparental crosses, Clustering, Euclidean distance, Principal Component Analysis
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