Abyssinia Journal of Science and Technology https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst <p><strong>Abyssinia Journal of Science and Technology (AJST)</strong> is newly established African scientific journal publishing from Wollo University, Ethiopia. It is an international, peer-reviewed and an open access scientific journal publishes two times per year. This journal publishes original research articles, short communications and occasionally reviews articles that generate the significant contribution in the field of science and technology. Its scope covers all aspects of National Sciences, Agricultural Sciences, Medical and Veterinary Sciences &amp; Engineering and Informatics.</p> <p>To qualify for publication, a manuscript must contribute to the understanding of science and technology by presenting either new and original research data as a full research article or in short communication format or review of a particular topic related to science and technology.</p> <p><strong>Date of Publishing: </strong>Every year first issue in <strong>JUNE </strong>and the second issue in<strong> DECEMBER</strong></p> en-US editor.ajst@wu.edu.et (Editor-in-Chief) contact.ajst@wu.edu.et (Contact for Support) Sat, 04 Sep 2021 23:14:50 -0400 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Adaptability and Growth Performance of Introduced Bamboo Species in North East Ethiopia https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/264 <p>The common bamboo species in Ethiopia are <em>Arundinaria alpina</em> and <em>Oxytenanthera abyssinica</em>. <em>Arundinaria </em><em>alpina</em> is a highland bamboo species growing in altitudes from 2400 – 3500 and <em>Oxytenanthera abyssinica</em> is a lowland bamboo growing within the altitudes from 500 - 1800 meter above sea level. But those two bamboo species grow scarcely in the study area. Keeping the importance of increasing diversity, generation of high economic earnings would possible through introducing available bamboo species for different agroecology. From this perspective, it is imperative to identify the best adaptable exotic bamboo species in the north eastern part of Amhara region. The experiment was conducted in Kobo research site of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. Randomized complete block design with three replications was used to conduct the experiment. Bamboo seedlings were obtained from international network for bamboo and rattan (INBAR-Ethiopia) and planted on July 22/ 2013. An observation on the survival of the propagated material, diameter, height and number of newly emerged shoots were recorded every three months with follow up on every month. The species were <em>Denderocalamus brandisii, Bambusa tulda, Bambusa balcooa </em>and<em> Denderocalamus asper. </em>The results showed that, <em>Bambusa</em><em> balcooa </em>and <em>Bambusa</em><em> tulda</em> has better survival percentage than <em>Denderocalamus brandisii </em>and <em>Denderocalamus asper. </em>Additionally, <em>Bambusa </em><em>balcooa </em>and <em>Bambusa</em><em> tulda</em> had significantly higher height and Diameter at Breast Height than <em>Denderocalamus asper. </em>Therefore, both <em>Bambusa </em><em>balcooa</em> and <em>Bambusa </em><em>tulda</em> should be demonstrated and popularized around kobo and other areas that have similar soil and climatic conditions.</p> Gezahagn Getachew, Derbie Wudu, Gebeyehu Alamire, Hodaddis Kasahun, Andualem Ayalew, Tigabu Redae, Muluken Wudu Copyright (c) 2021 Abyssinia Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/264 Sat, 04 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Assessment of Major Insect Pests and Diseases of Sesame (Sesamum orientale L) in West Gondar Zone, Ethiopia https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/61 <p>The field survey was conducted in four districts of western Gondar Zone during 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons at 3-5 km intervals with the objective of assessing and identifying major insect pests and diseases and their intensity on sesame. Data were collected using 0.25 m<sup>2</sup> quadrate. Among insect pests, sesame webworm (86.2%) and aphid (86.2%) were the most prevalent and severe followed by thrips, mealybug, and gallmaige with a prevalence of 62.5%, 44.5% and 2.25%, respectively. The prevalence of webworm was 100% in West Armachiho district. Only altitude and growth stage were significantly associated with the intensity of insect pests. Bacterial blight, Cercospora leaf spot, wilt, and phyllody were identified with different levels of intensity across districts. The highest mean prevalence of bacterial blight (88.5%) and Cercospora leaf spot (90.4%) were recorded at Metema and Tegede districts, respectively. The association of independent variables varies with the intensity of sesame diseases. Variables such as altitude, variety, the growth stage of the crop and previous crop were significantly associated with bacterial blight, Cercospora leaf spot, and wilt severity. Therefore, management options should be developed for those most prevalent and severe insect pests and diseases in the future.</p> Yohannes Kefale, Asfaw Ambaw, Mintesnot Worku, Misganaw Gelaye Copyright (c) 2021 Abyssinia Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/61 Sat, 04 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Assessment of Knowledge and Attitudes towards Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Perceptions towards Premarital Sex among College students: A Cross-sectional Study https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/177 <p>University/college students are at risk to Human immunodeficiency Virus because of their risky sexual behaviors. Interventions based on data are, therefore, crucial to mitigate the challenge related to human immunodeficiency virus among college/university students. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of students at Gondar College of Teacher Education towards human immunodeficiency virus and their perceptions towards premarital sex. A cross-sectional quantitative survey employed on 400 students. Sample size determined using single population proportion formula where the individual participants selected by simple random sampling technique after proportionately stratified in department &amp; year of study. The Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires and presented in frequencies and percentages. Inferential statistics determined using chi-square, independent t-test, and one-way Analysis of Variance. Most respondents (94.3%) had excellent knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus; some reported misconceptions. Third-year and sexually inexperienced students showed a low level of knowledge on human immunodeficiency virus (F = 6.198, p = 0.002). Many respondents (35.6%) had negative attitudes towards people living with human immunodeficiency virus. Chi-square analysis showed that negative attitude towards acquired immunodeficiency syndrome significantly associated with females (ꭓ<sup>2 </sup>(1) = 6.420, p = 0.011), unmarried respondents (ꭓ<sup>2</sup> (1) = 4.178, p = 0.041), and younger ages (ꭓ<sup>2</sup> (2) = 11.278, p = 0.01). One-hundred twenty-five (37.7%) respondents claimed a history of sexual experience. Many respondents (23.5% to 62.3%) showed permissive attitudes towards premarital sex. Most respondents showed good knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus &amp; positive attitudes, however, some misconceptions, negative attitudes, and sexual practices observed in the study. Many respondents showed permissive behaviors towards premarital sex. Thus, future research and human immunodeficiency virus prevention interventions in the college should focus on behavior change models and strengthening cultural norms.</p> Kindu Tsegaye Copyright (c) 2021 Abyssinia Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/177 Sat, 04 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Estimation of Genetic Distance among Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Crosses in Ethiopia https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/215 <p>In Ethiopia, there is very little effort has been carried in determining on genetic information of potato crosses. This study was conducted to determine the genetic distance among 81 potato clones. Parents with their hybrid offspring were evaluated for 18 traits in a 9 x 9 simple lattice design and their genetic diversity was determined using multivariate analysis. The Euclidean distances estimates showed that the genetic distances ranged from 1.57 to 14.35 cM with a mean of 5.77. Cluster analysis revealed that the parents and offspring were grouped into sixteen clusters. The maximum number of clones were grouped in cluster V followed by cluster I with 15 clones and cluster VI with 13 clones. Cluster mean analysis showed a wide range of variation for several characters among single as well as multi-genotypic clusters. Clones produced from biparental crosses of <em>Jalene</em> with <em>Aterababa</em> and <em>Belete</em> with <em>Aterababa</em> showed high inter and intra cluster distance than <em>Shenkola</em> with <em>Gera</em> crosses. The first four principal components accounted for 72.7% of the total variations; where principal component analysis 1and 2 with values of 33.8% and 16.6%, respectively, which contributed to 50% of total variations. Total yield per hectare, tuber yield per plant, marketable tuber yield and stem height had much contribution to the principal component analysis. The current study suggests the higher chance of developing genetically distant clones through local crossing to produce heterotic hybrids. Considering diversity pattern, parents should be selected from I, II, X, XI and XII clusters to improve potato crop.</p> Manamno Workayehu, Wassu Mohammed, Tesfaye Abebe, Bitwoded Derebe Copyright (c) 2021 Abyssinia Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/215 Sat, 04 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Clinical Characteristics and in-Hospital Mortality in Patients with Acute Heart Failure at Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/233 <p>Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death globally. An estimated 17.9 million people died from CVDs in 2019, representing 32% of all global deaths. Of these deaths, 85% were due to heart attack and stroke. Acute heart failure (AHF) is one of the most common diseases in emergency department and associated with a poor prognosis and high mortality rate. This study is aimed to assess the mortality rate of AHF patients at Dessie Referral Hospital. A retrospective cross-sectional study design was employed. All adult patients with a diagnosis of AHF who were admitted during the period January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019 were included. Data was abstracted from the medical records by trained data collectors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the association between dependent and all the independent variables. In the study, a total of 96 acute heart failure patients participated. 49 (51 %) were females. The mean age was 52.5 (SD= ±20.28) years. Two third of patients (62, 64.6%) were newly diagnosed AHF patients. The mean length of hospital stay was 5.13 days (SD = ±3.92). Acute pulmonary congestion (86, 89.58%), orthopnea (78, 81.25%) and peripheral edema (64, 66.67%) were the most common clinical presentations. The most common prior medical conditions were Myocardial infarction (19, 19.8%) and valvular heart disease (8, 8.3%). Loop diuretics were the most commonly used drugs (87, 90.63%) during admission. In-hospital mortality was found to be 22.9%. We concluded that the in-hospital mortality was very high for acute heart failure patients at Dessie referral Hospital.</p> Kassahun Bogale, Assasu Aderaw Copyright (c) 2021 Abyssinia Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/233 Sat, 04 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400