Abyssinia Journal of Science and Technology https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst <p><strong>Abyssinia Journal of Science and Technology (AJST)</strong> is newly established African scientific journal publishing from Wollo University, Ethiopia. It is an international, peer-reviewed and an open access scientific journal publishes two times per year. This journal publishes original research articles, short communications and occasionally reviews articles that generate the significant contribution in the field of science and technology. Its scope covers all aspects of Natural Sciences, Agricultural Sciences, Medical and Veterinary Sciences &amp; Engineering and Informatics.</p> <p>To qualify for publication, a manuscript must contribute to the understanding of science and technology by presenting either new and original research data as a full research article or in short communication format or review of a particular topic related to science and technology.</p> <p><strong>Date of Publishing: </strong>Every year first issue in <strong>JUNE </strong>and the second issue in<strong> DECEMBER</strong></p> en-US editor.ajst@wu.edu.et (Editor-in-Chief) contact.ajst@wu.edu.et (Contact for Support) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 3.2.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Timely Initiation of Complementary Feeding and its Associated Factors among Children 6-23 Months in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/279 <p>In Ethiopia, various studies have been done in order to determine the proportion of infants who had initiated complimentary food timely and its associated factors. The results of these studies were not consistent and had a big variability. Hence, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to estimate the pooled prevalence of timely initiation of complementary feeding and its associated factors among children 6-23 months in Ethiopia. Different databases were systematically searched. Studies reporting the proportion and associated factors of timely initiation of complementary feeding in Ethiopia were considered. The Cochrane Q test statistic and I2 test were used to assess the heterogeneity between the studies. A random effect model was computed to estimate the pooled prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding. In addition, the association between timely initiation of complementary feeding and Antenatal Care follow-up, place of delivery, postnatal checkup, women’s education, mother’s occupation, father’s education, marital status, child sex, place of residence was determined. Eighteen studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. The findings of this meta-analysis revealed that, the pooled prevalence of timely initiation of complementary feeding in Ethiopia was 55.64% (95% Confidence interval: 50.35, 60.93%). In this study, timely initiation of complementary feeding in Ethiopia was significantly low compared to the current global recommendation on complementary feeding. Women from rural area were less likely to initiate complementary feeding at six months as compared with women from urban areas. Mothers who give birth at home were less likely to initiate complementary feeding timely.</p> Amare Muche, Zinabu Fentaw, Reta Dewau, Muluken Genetu Chanie, Mequannent Sharew Melaku, Yawukal Tsega, Mamo Dereje Alemu Copyright (c) 2022 Abyssinia Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/279 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Chemical Constituents of Datura stramonium L. Leaves and Its Antibacterial Activity against Human Pathogenic Bacteria https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/176 <p>The study of natural products has had a number of rewards. It has led to the discovery of a variety of useful drugs for the treatment of diverse ailments. The present study was phytochemical screening of the major secondary metabolites and evaluating their antibacterial activities of the crude extracts of Datura stramonium L. leaves. Extraction was done successively by maceration of leaf powder using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol as solvents. Phytochemical screening was performed by various qualitative and quantitative methods. Antimicrobial activities of the crude extracts were determined by Agar well diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella boydii, Streptococcus agalactiae and Klebsiella pneumonia. The result of phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, steroid, tannin and terpenoids and absence of quinones. Quantitative analysis of some of the detected phytochemicals showed saponins (44.61 mg/g) and alkaloids (39.10 mg/g) were dominant compounds followed by flavonoids (34.71 mg/g) and terpenoids (32.34 mg/g). Results of antibacterial assay revealed that extracts of the plant leaves showed inhibitory activity against the tested bacterial pathogens. Maximum inhibition was recorded against Streptococcus agalactiae (20.15±0.28 mm) and minimum inhibition against S. aureus (7.35±0.14 mm). Based on this results it is concluded that leaf extracts of the tested plant have the major secondary metabolites and antibacterial activities against the tested bacterial isolates.</p> Mohammed Assen Ali, Sisay Awoke Copyright (c) 2022 Abyssinia Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/176 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Impact of Lantana camara L. on Plant Diversity and Soil Physicochemical Characteristics in Wollo Floristic Region, Ethiopia https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/274 <p>Degraded forestland in the Wollo floristic region areas are highly invaded with Lantana camara L. species due to the invasive nature of the species and less consent of resource manager. This study was intended to assess the effects of Lantana camara L. on plant diversity and selected soil parameters. Thus, the study forests were stratified into three categories such as highly invaded, moderately invaded and un-invaded forest. In those sites, a total 30 sample plots, for tree and shrub assessment (main plot size of 20 m × 20 m), seedling and sapling (two subplots of 2 m × 5 m), and herbaceous species and soil sampling (five 1 m × 1 m subplots) within each main plot were used. All plant species in all plots were recorded; trees and shrubs Height and Diameter at Breast Height were measured. The data was then analyzed using R-Software. In the study sites, species abundance and basal area decreased with increasing invasion of Lantana camara L. from highly invaded, moderately invaded to an un-invaded site in that order. The invaded site had the least Shannon Weiner (H’) value, while the highest value was in the un-invaded site. Phosphorus and organic carbon were highest in the invaded site, followed by the moderately invaded site, and lowest in the uninvaded site. In conclusion, the species result in changing species composition and horizontal structure, then, it is recommended that local communities and policymakers should formulate effective controlling strategies to protect further expansion.</p> Beyen Bezabih, Tsegaye Gobezie, Seid Hassen Copyright (c) 2022 Abyssinia Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/274 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Assessment of Hygienic Practices and Microbial Quality of Meat at Slaughterhouses and Butcher’s Shops in West Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/278 <p>The objective of the study was to assess the hygienic practices and microbial quality of meat at slaughterhouses and butcher’s shops in West Hararghe Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used during April 2019 and August 2019 with a sample size of 52 study participants who workednin a slaughterhouse and/or meat retailing outlets in Chiro and Hirna towns. The data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire followed by laboratory analysis. The safety of meat products was determined by counting Total Viable Bacterial, Total Coliform, Enterobacter, and Staphylococcus spp. The result of this study showed that meat handlers were mostly uneducated working without protective cloths. Slaughtering and post slaughtering process in many premises were unhygienic, which causes a high risk of crosscontamination and is hazardous for public health. Microbial load both in slaughterhouses and butcher’s shops were higher than the recommended standards. Overall the mean total bacterial counts, coliform counts, Enterobacter and staphylococcus spp. values were 7.01±0.25 log10CFU/cm2, 6.02±0.29 log10CFU/cm2, 6.950±0.16 log10CFU/cm2 and 6.36±0.2 log10CFU/cm2, respectively. This might be due to cross-contamination through poor personal hygiene, lack of demarcation between dirt and clean met products in the slaughterhouses, evisceration, and dressing on an unhygienic floor.</p> Muhammed Nurye, Mulu Demlie Copyright (c) 2022 Abyssinia Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/278 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Amharic Language Visual Speech Recognition using Hybrid Features https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/271 <p>Lip motion reading is a process of knowing the words spoken from a video with or without an audio signal by observing the motion of the lips of the speaker. In the previous studies its accuracy is limited because of not applying appropriate image enhancement methods and the algorithms used for feature extraction and feature vector generation. In the present study, we propose automatic visual speech recognition machine learning and computervision techniques for Amharic language lip motion reading. The objective of the study to improve the existing Amharic lip motion reading and the performance of speech recognition systems operating in noisy environments. The collected the video of Amharic speech by recording directly using mobile devices. In this study 14 Amharic words that are frequently talked by patients or health professional in the hospital were recorded. The total number of patients used for the study were 1260 (945 for training and 315 for testing our proposed model. To extract the features, we used Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) and their combination methods were employed so as to extract the features. We feed these features to random forest independently and with combination to recognize the spoken word. Each of these features were tested by using precision, recall and fl-score classifiers for measuring the performance of our model and to compare the accuracy of our model with previous related works.Our model system records 66.03%, 75.24% and 76.51% accuracy on HOG, CNN and combined features (random forest), respectively.</p> Zelalem Tamrie Copyright (c) 2022 Abyssinia Journal of Science and Technology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.wu.edu.et/index.php/ajst/article/view/271 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0500